Q: I recently reached age 62 and start early Social Security in January. I will also receive dependent benefits for our 17-year-old son who is in high school and lives at home. Can my wife receive Social Security on my record now because our son will? She is in her 50’s and working.
A: Based on the information provided, the answer here is no but the question helps showcase a type of spousal benefit that many people are not aware of.
When discussing potential Social Security spousal benefits to either husband or wife, most people think only of a spouse also at least early retirement age of 62. Another variation of spousal benefits is possible to your spouse of any age when a child is receiving Social Security through your work record.
Potential spousal benefits because children are receiving benefits are mentioned in the publication Benefits for Children https://www.socialsecurity.gov/pubs/EN-05-10085.pdf and in the https://www.socialsecurity.gov/pubs/EN-05-10035.pdf Retirement Benefits booklet (page 10) which states “However, if your spouse is taking care of a child who is under age 16, or disabled, and gets Social Security benefits on your record, your spouse gets full benefits, regardless of age.”
Since this type of spousal benefit is possible because there is an eligible child under the age of 16 or disabled receiving benefits, the age of the spouse is not a factor for eligibility or amount.
When working full time, many parents who might otherwise be entitled to this type of spousal benefit choose not to file for it. This is because the annual earnings test https://www.socialsecurity.gov/planners/retire/whileworking.html applies to them and expected earnings could negate any SSA potentially payable. Earnings test amounts for 2016 will be the same as in 2015.
Note that the child receiving benefits must be under age 16 or eligible because of disability. Since the child referred to in the above question is already age 17 with no mention of being disabled, benefits to him would not make his mother eligible for benefits.
When payable, amounts for this benefit are based on the retiree’s full retirement age (FRA) amount, not his or her actual monthly Social Security amount. Child and spouse each receive the same monthly amount of up to one-half of the retiree’s FRA amount. If payable, these spousal benefits are not reduced for age. Estimate your FRA amount with the Retirement Estimator tool in the SSA Retirement Planner https://www.socialsecurity.gov/planners/retire/ or by viewing your SSA Statement through your my Social Security https://www.socialsecurity.gov/myaccount/ account.
Although this question referred to Social Security retirement benefits, the same type of spousal benefit is available if a worker receives Social Security disability benefits https://www.socialsecurity.gov/planners/disability/ , with an eligible child as above.
If the worker is deceased, Social Security survivors benefits https://www.socialsecurity.gov/planners/survivors/ could be payable to a widow or widower of any age if an eligible child younger than age 16 or disabled received benefits.