Europium is primarily found in minerals such as monazite, xenotime, loparite, and bastnasite. Europium belongs to lanthanide series (lanthanide/actinide series) assuming oxidation state because it is readily oxidized in air and water [Level 2 (+2) or Level 3 (+3)] in combination with sodium sulphate. Sulphates are salts and esters of sulphuric acid, while Europium is the rarest metal to be found in independent state. Europium sodium sulfate is an organometallic compound. Sodium metallic ions are used in solar and fuel cells. Medical usage lies in reinforcing chemotherapy with charged water and homeopathic nanoparticle portions of Europium sodium sulfate and Iron phosphate works on cold and dormant conditions of body as it warms the blood and stimulates the blood. Europium sodium sulfate is used in highly sensitive military operations. Highly limited details and access are granted currently.
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Sulphate ions with sodium and phosphorous are being tried and tested in laboratories by ion exchange methods to derive new products required in defense and nuclear power sectors. Europium with sodium sulfate ions is used in nucleonic with control rods in nuclear reactor. Oxides of europium make the base material highly impervious to thermal neutrons. High-flux isotope reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has even used europium (+2 and +3 ions) dispersed in aluminum combined with sodium sulfate ions in a control rod for the nuclear reactor.
Ongoing research is about fluorescence enhancement of europium-norfloxacin system using leutecium. A new kind of enhancement fluorescence system, Lu-Eu-norfloxacin-sodium lauryl sulfate, has been invented. Under optimum conditions, europium +3 (which is unstable in nature) traces were visible. They were in a stable state. Europium sodium sulfate is more of a research product for medical and defense sectors. It shows photo luminescence effect along with europium phosphate. Currently, based on chemical synthesis i.e. oxidation state, europium sodium sulfate is available in +2 ions state and +3 ions state. These ions are slightly reducing agents. Others are europium sodium phosphate ions, which were used extensively in CRTs of color televisions and oxides employed as decolorants.
Europium falls under REE (Rare Earth Elements), which are widely distributed across the globe. In terms of revenue and volume, China leads the global market for europium sodium sulfate, due to abundant reserves of europium. Use of europium sodium sulfate in food, agriculture, optical, and pharmaceuticals industries in China makes the country a leading consumer. Malaysia, Australia, and Russia follow China. The U.S. is also a major manufacturer of europium sodium sulfate.
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A key player operating in the europium sodium sulfate market is GFS Chemicals, a company based in the U.S. and Canada. By far, GFS Chemicals is the market leader in terms of extraction, production, sales, and exports of europium sodium sulfate.