Aspergillosis is a group of diseases that occur from aspergillus infection. Aspergillus is a fungus whose spores are present in the air, but does not normally cause illness. Individuals with damaged lungs, sensitive immune system, and allergies are more prone to Aspergillus induced infection. Common Aspergillus infections include invasive Aspergillosis, non-invasive Allergic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA), and Chronic Pulmonary and Aspergilloma (CPA). Invasive aspergillosis is uncommon and occurs primarily in immunocompromised people.
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Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is rare pulmonary disease, which increases symptoms of respiratory disorders such as asthma. According to a study published by European Respiratory Society (ERS) publications, in 2015, CPA is estimated to affect nearly 240,000 people in Europe. The most common form of CPA is Chronic Cavitary Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CCPA), which if left untreated can develop chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis. According to a statistics published by Centers for Disease Control and prevention, (CDC) an estimated 10% of individuals with asthma or cystic fibrosis experience an allergic reaction to aspergillus. ABPA is estimated to affect 2-15% of patients with cystic fibrosis and around 2% of all asthma patients.
Increasing prevalence of Aspergillosis and favorable government regulations are the major factors driving growth of the Aspergillosis treatment market. According to a study published in Journal of Fungi 2016, CPA is estimated to affect nearly three million people globally making it major health problem resulting in mortality and morbidity. Aspergillosis infection can be treated with antifungal and corticosteroids drugs. Corticosteroid drugs are prescribed for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis treatment.
These drugs reduce inflammation and lowers respiratory symptoms such as coughing and wheezing. Some of the most frequently used drugs are methylprednisolone, prednisolone and prednisone. The U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approved various drugs for Aspergillosis infection treatment. For instance, in 2015, the U.S. FDA approved Isavuconazonium (Astellas Pharma), a prodrug form of Isavuconazole. Antifungal drugs are majorly used to treat invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis. Voriconazole, an antifungal drug is widely used due to less side effects and more effectiveness in comparison to other drugs. Itraconazole or Amphotericin B also treat the infection effectively. Caspofungin is used to treat infection, resistant to the other antifungals. Furthermore, antifungal drugs are sometimes used in combination with corticosteroids for treating ABPA. Surgeries may be required in some cases where aspergillomas are present leading to serious problems such as excessive bleeding. Antifungal drugs are generally not effective against aspergillomas, therefore surgery such as embolization is recommended. An aspergilloma is a solid mass of Aspergillus hyphae, mucus, fibrin, and other cellular debris, formed inside a pre-existing area of pulmonary cavity or scar.
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Abbott laboratories, AstraZeneca plc, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Novartis AG, Pfizer, Inc., and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd.
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